These long distance routes included ocean liners to Southern and East Africa, the West Indies and South America. Jet aircraft were not a serious threat until the late 1960s, and so these ocean liners benefited from a steady flow of business even after the North Atlantic trade was in its decline.
The British, French, Dutch and Italians had strong commercial and cultural reasons for passenger services to their former colonial outposts. Most lines also carried considerable freight such as manufactured goods and localized cargoes.
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